Casoli is one of the oldest villages of the Val di Lima, the first evidence of human life (nomadic hunters) in the area date back to the Middle Paleolithic, has been confirmed by the discovery of a flint artefacts between black bear and numerous bones of other animals in the locality Carbonari "(located just below the village), these nomadic hunters later joined by some nomadic tribes from the Ligurian coast, which gave birth to the first permanent settlements.
The story begins by Casoli one of these early Celtic settlement, was born at a fortification erected in the most rugged and high choline, this first "castle" in a position to offer shelter in case of danger to the population of the village, housed in Inside also the center of the sacred "conciliabulum" (subdivision of the Ligurian-Apuani), the ruins of which now form a lytic complex of the most interesting and mysterious of the province of Lucca.
In 180 BC The Romans, after a series of military expeditions in Val di Serchio scoffiggere and managed to subdue the Ligurian-Apuani. starting to colonize the Garfagnana and the surrounding valleys, the Romanization of the Val di Lima also involved the small Celtic village of Casoli (place names of Latin origin "home" - "Home"). After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Val di Lima was occupied by the barbarian Goths and then by the Lombards, Casoli like other countries will share the fate of the valley and is now one of the few countries in the province of Lucca, which of these two peoples still preserves some of the tracks in 1981 to ' interior of a ruined house were found some remarkable footprints Lombard, including a stone engraved with centrally arenaia inscription Lombard (perhaps the only one so far discovered in central Italy), composed of 13 signs. The stone, according to a study made at the time of its discovery by historians A. Ambrosini, C. M. Puccini and Zecchini, would present a phonetic and a typical morphology of the three historic Lombard at the end of their studies, they attributed the following translation UUOTORNAVEISSI "the crazies (or possessed) is grace. "
With the arrival of the Lombards, we begin to have the first documented in this country with a mysterious past, Casoli is mentioned for the first time in a parchment of 983, in which the son of Viscount Fraolmo Fraolmo obtained by the Bishop of Lucca in Teudigrimo allivellamento of goods on "Casule." In 1180 at the church of S. Quirico Bridge (now Monte S. Quirico di Lucca), was drawn up an important document for the history of Casoli, this scroll in the priest's church Amit S. Donato in Casoli Casoli and Consuls of the castle, it was Henry and Dont's of Orsello was Baroncelli, swore allegiance to William Bishop of Lucca, this written document when the country belonged to the fief of Porcaresi, confirm the construction of its church and its castle "de Castro Casore" erected over the ancient fortification Ligure (location still known as the "Castle"), probably in the early twelfth century, but above documents completed the formation of his "City", the first documented in Val di Lima and among the first in Lucca.
In the thirteenth century, Lucca eager to expand its borders tried to subdue the Val di Lima, the castles of the valley including Casoli, to escape the yoke of Lucca asked protection to Pope Gregory IX (in that period in full fight with ally Frederick II of Lucca), managing to avert the danger, but never renounced Lucca to the project and in later years managed to subdue them all equally, because of the scarcity of documents not know when Casoli came under the insignia of Lucca, but in the Statute of the Lucchese 1308, is already belong to the "Vicar Civium Terrarum et Vallis Lime."
Some years after Lord Wolf Lupari Benabbio and during that time also the Lord of Casoli, as a matter of money went into the fight with his friend and ally Castruccio Castracane Lord of Lucca, which drove him to punish him by "Land" by seizing its Lucca goods.
In 1336 Florence resumed hostilities with Lucca (and its Lords Scaligers) by sending his troops commanded by Pietro de Rossi, "spoil and harm" in the countryside of Lucca, in early March, the Florentine militia tried to cross the mountains of Pistoia Casoli storm the castle, but during the march towards the mountains is brought down a storm, forcing the soldiers to abandon the action and return to base, in the days following the militias moved elsewhere and the castle of Casola saved without realizing it.
In 1807 during the Principality of Elisa Baciocchi, administrators Napoleonic always ready to squeeze money from Lucca, challenged the community to a debt Casoli (5000 pounds) in their contract with the administration Lucchese two centuries earlier, when the plague struck hard on the country, casolini after a series of checks were able to prove that there was a debt, but a fee is not paid in full and fared with a small amount.